M.B. energy consumption is necessary for cardiac and respiratory muscle activity at rest, for the synthesis of substances for rebuilding the body structure, to maintain constant temperature and muscle tone for the work of excretion and secretion.
M.B. measured at rest physically and mentally, in a space of
comfort temperature, after a break of 12 hours after the last lunch.
During the night sleep is very close metabolism metabolism. In adults, the M.B. is 1 Kcal / kg body weight / hour so that: eg. a 70 kg person, M.B. is 1x70x24 = 1680 Kcal in 24 hours
M.B is influenced by:
a) age – the child (2-2.5 kcal / kg / h) ↓ from teenagers to 1.5-1.7 kcal / kg / h for. adult reach 1 kcal / kg / h After 55-60 years M.B. ↓ by 15-20 to the previous value.
– To meet a pregnant ↑ 20-25% from the previous pregnancy.
– During lactation is an increase of 10-20%.
Another important factor in the calculation of energy requirements and maintaining a constant composition of the body. Eg., A person of 65 kg. will have 11kg protein, fat 9 kg, 1 kg carbohydrate, 40 kg of water, 4 kg minerals. From the total amount of protein can lose up to 2 kg without health of the body may be affected. Body may be missing the 8 kg of total fat, but 1 kg. necessary for wallpapering internal organs to enter the different structures of the body.
In the body can be gone by 200 g carbohydrate, 10% of water, and one third of the amount of mineral salts.
Ingesting foods require an additional expense of energy, called specific dynamic action (SDA), which varies depending on the food consumed. Thus, by burning, increase metabolism by 20-30% protein, 6-8% carbohydrates and lipids by 2-5%. The average energy expenditure for. ADS in terms of a balanced diet exceeds approx. 10% metabolism.
c) muscle activity
Energy needs in muscle activity depends on the number of muscle groups required, speed of contraction, effort and relationship between periods of rest and exercise. The amount of energy consumed by professions are divided into 4 categories:
– With little energy expenditure: teachers, doctors, office staff, accountants, lawyers, (women = 2400 kcal., Men = 2800 kcal);
– The average expenditure of energy: light industry, students, housewives, some agricultural work, etc.., (Women = 2700 kcal, men = 3300 kcal);
– With high energy expenditure: lathe, milling, tractor, some farm labor (women = 3000kcal, men = 3700 kcal);
– With high energy expenditure and only in men: hole in the ground, forestry workers, (4100 kcal).
Values are recommended for ages 20-40 years, after which a decrease MB up to 200 kcal for men and 300 kcal. in women.
Basal metabolism 60-65% of daily energy expenditure, 10% is represented by ADS, and 25-30% of muscle activity.
It is noted that the energy requirements increase and decrease low temperatures to high temperatures. Energy demand was estimated at an average of 10 degrees Celsius, any decrease or increase by 10 degrees resulting in an increase or decrease its 3%
e) Pregnancy and lactation.
Overall, the task, there is a surplus of 80,000 kcal in 9 months (150 kcal / day in the first trimester and 350 kcal / day in the second quarter) required for development of the fetus, placenta, breast enlargement and effort respiratory and heart. To produce 850 ml of milk consumed 650 kcal., And another 150 are needed secretory effort.
Disorders which can occur in an unbalanced energy input are:
Obesity and malnutrition by excess of food deficiency.