Osteoporosis

Gradual reduction of the bone texture protein, which still remains normal mineralized. Facilitate bone texture is a natural protein called osteopenia physiological age-related skeletal. Osteoporosis is characterized by exaggeration of this process due to an imbalance between the activity of
osteoblasts (bone cells that provide training) and that of osteoclasts (cells that ensure the destruction of bone tissue) for the same volume, the bone is less dense and thus more fragile .
Causes – The causes of osteoporosis are multiple. The most common is postmenopausal osteoporosis. At menopause, estrogen levels (hormones bone protectors) collapsed, while the corticosteroids (hormones that increase bone resorption) remains constant. senile osteoporosis is observed especially in women over 60, and the frequency increases with age. It is favored by inactivity, the lack of exposure to natural light (which allows the synthesis of vitamin D by the skin), a diet low in calcium and protein. Osteoporosis can also be an endocrine or drug origin: excess thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism or related to a wrong treatment of a metered hypothyroidism) or parathyroid (presence of a parathyroid adenoma on one), corticosteroids (Cushing’s disease, treatment corticosteroids), etc.. These osteoporosis can occur at any age.
Symptoms and signs – fractures are the main manifestations of osteoporosis. Place in fracture varies depending on how the reduction of bone density affects cortical bone or cancellous bone.

Diagnosis – Very often a vertebral or excessive transparency radiography allows detection of osteoporosis. This settlement must be confirmed, and its importance is currently measured bone biopsy rather than bifotonica absorptiometry. Evolution of compaction can be seen regularly measuring patient height. A cause vertebral height loss of 1 to 2 inches. An involving multiple vertebral osteoporosis may lead to height loss up to 15-20 inches.
Osteoporosis
Gradual reduction of the bone texture protein, which still remains normal mineralized. Facilitate bone texture is a natural protein called osteopenia physiological age-related skeletal. Osteoporosis is characterized by exaggeration of this process due to an imbalance between the activity of osteoblasts (bone cells that provide training) and that of osteoclasts (cells that ensure the destruction of bone tissue) for the same volume, the bone is less dense and thus more fragile .
Causes – The causes of osteoporosis are multiple. The most common is postmenopausal osteoporosis. At menopause, estrogen levels (hormones bone protectors) collapsed, while the corticosteroids (hormones that increase bone resorption) remains constant. senile osteoporosis is observed especially in women over 60, and the frequency increases with age. It is favored by inactivity, the lack of exposure to natural light (which allows the synthesis of vitamin D by the skin), a diet low in calcium and protein. Osteoporosis can also be an endocrine or drug origin: excess thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism or related to a wrong treatment of a metered hypothyroidism) or parathyroid (presence of a parathyroid adenoma on one), corticosteroids (Cushing’s disease, treatment corticosteroids), etc.. These osteoporosis can occur at any age.
Symptoms and signs – fractures are the main manifestations of osteoporosis. Place in fracture varies depending on how the reduction of bone density affects cortical bone or cancellous bone.

Diagnosis – Very often a vertebral or excessive transparency radiography allows detection of osteoporosis. This settlement must be confirmed, and its importance is currently measured bone biopsy rather than bifotonica absorptiometry. Evolution of compaction can be seen regularly measuring patient height. A cause vertebral height loss of 1 to 2 inches. An involving multiple vertebral osteoporosis may lead to height loss up to 15-20 inches.
is Laboratory
Blood tests may include:
• the level of calcium in the blood – this analysis is typical of osteoporosis, but may be associated with other bone disorders;
• Vitamin D – Vitamin D deficiency can lead to decreased absorption of calcium;
• thyroid tests – T4 or TSH for thyroid disease detection;
• Parathyroid hormone (PTH) – to detect hyperparathyroidism;
• follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) – for the detection of menopause;
• Testosterone – to check hormone deficiencies in men;
• Electrophoresis of proteins – to identify abnormal proteins produced by a particular type of cancer (multiple myeloma), which destroy bone tissue;
• Alkaline phosphatase – to measure elevated levels can indicate bone disease.
Bone markers are urine and blood tests can sometimes be used to assess and monitor bone resorption and formation.
Tests for measuring bone resorption:
Bone resorption tests provide valuable information about the rate of bone loss. These medical tests can be taken before and after treatment to see if the rate of bone loss decreased.
They include:
• C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx));
• deoxypyridinoline (DPD);
• pyridine cross-links;
• tartrate resistant acid phosphatase.
Tests to measure bone formation:
Analysis provides valuable information about bone formation bone formation rate. As bone resorption tests, they can be made before treatment and repeated periodically after treatment to check the possible increase in the rate of bone formation.
They include:
Home • bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP);
• Osteocalcin (bone protein G1A);
• P1NP (N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type 1).
Below we present some of the best known markers of bone resorption and bone formation, determined from samples of blood and / or urine. Research for new biomarkers that can predict abnormal bone loss in different stages of the disease are in progress. For most markers must be taken in interpreting the results because of individual variability data diet, moderate exercise and the day on which the biological samples.
Blood and urine tests for bone resorption include:
C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a peptide fragment of the carboxy-terminal region of the matrix protein, help monitor antiresorptive therapies such as biofosfonatii or hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women and people with osteopenia (low bone mass);
N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment of the amino-terminal region of the matrix protein, we recommend testing for osteoporosis before treatment and after 3-6 months of therapy;
Deoxypyridinoline (DPD) – is a degradation product of collagen structure, ring structure;
Pyridine cross-links – group a degradation product of collagen structure, including DPD, used to monitor therapeutic response; less specific than bone collagen telopeptides;
Tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b – TRAP isoform 5b is formed by osteoclasts during bone resorption.
Blood tests for bone formation include:
Home bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP) – ALP isoenzymes one, is associated with osteoblast function and plays a role in bone mineralization, we recommend testing for osteoporosis before treatment and after 3-6 months of therapy, the results may be biased The amount of ALP in the liver;
Osteocalcin (bone protein G1A) – a protein made only by osteoblasts, non-collagenous protein of the newly formed bone tissue, a party may enter the bloodstream, Osteocalcin help predict the rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women and may be an indicator of the rate process bone remodeling, has a degree of utility in choosing the most effective treatment for osteoporosis, but less sensitive to changes than telopeptides, we recommend testing for osteoporosis before treatment and after 3-6 months of therapy. This test can be influenced by drug use warfarin;
P1NP (N-terminal propeptide of procollagen type 1) – formed by osteoblasts, reflect the rate of bone formation and collagen, they may recommend it in parallel with the bone resorption markers such as C-telopeptide and N-telopeptide, the more sensitive marker of bone formation, especially useful for monitoring bone formation therapies and antiresorptive therapies, we recommend testing for osteoporosis before treatment and after 3-6 months of therapy.
Elevated levels of bone markers in blood and urine suggests an increased rate of resorption and / or bone formation, but can not suggest the cause. When used to monitor antiresorptive therapy, lowering bone resorption markers highlights a therapeutic response.
If you do one or more of these tests, you may be advised not to eat food before blood sampling. Follow the instructions for the blood sample, such as harvesting in the morning after emptying the bladder.
There are several limitations of the clinical utility of bone markers, but researchers continue to explore ways to expand their utility. Their main purpose is to standardize the effectiveness of therapies used to treat metabolic bone diseases and the correct adjustment of the dosage to achieve a maximum effect
Treatment and prevention – treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis is to take natural estrogen. endocrine osteoporosis treatment or drug is the cause of them. Among other proposed medical treatments to fight osteoporosis evolution may be cited taking ealciu, vitamin D and fluoride oral, intramuscular injections of calcitonin. However, none of these drugs is not consistently effective, and some may even have undesirable effects for hypercalcemia and calcium stone formation, bone weakening for fluorine, moreover, the effect of calcitonin is limited by antibodies formed by the body subject .
Preventing osteoporosis is so indispensable immobility favoring bone loss, exercise (walking), even regular practice of sport activities can be useful. Any workout is still excessive harm. It is recommended that food be rich in calcium and protein (milk, dairy products, meat, fish) and limit alcohol consumption and smoking. Pregnancy and lactation have a beneficial effect on bone stock.

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