Secreting membrane lining the bronchioles , bronchi and trachea , sputum helps protect against respiratory infections. When removed from the respiratory tract , sputum containing saliva, nasal and sinus secretions , dead cells and normal oral bacteria from the respiratory tract . Sputum samples are collected to detect potential existing microbes .
The most used is the expectoration of sputum collection , which sometimes may require prior nebulization , hydration , postural drainage . One method used is less tracheal suctioning and , very rarely , bronchoscopy .
Tracheal aspiration is contraindicated immediately after meals in patients with esophageal varices , laryngospasm . It should also be carried out with care to patients with heart problems, as it may aggravate arrhythmias .
Harvesting by expectoration
- sterile container with tight lid
- Laboratory analysis request form
- face mask
- tray / bag for vomiting
patient is seated in a chair or on the bed in a seated position . If not , lift the bed slightly elevated position with your knees semişezândă ( Fowler ‘s position )
patient is asked to rinse your mouth with plain water with no mouthwash or toothpaste) to reduce the risk of contamination of sputum samples with oral microbial flora . I then asked to cough and cough in sterile container
attached container lid tightly and clean its outside if
waste discard contaminated gloves
container labeled with the patient’s name , doctor , date and time of harvest , the alleged diagnosis if the patient is febrile or under antibiotic
sample is sent to the lab
Special considerations :
will suggest the patient to cough deeply to avoid spit saliva instead of sputum
to stimulate the secretion of sputum may be postural drainage before harvest
sputum expectoration is contaminated by normal flora of the mouth that tracheal aspiration may provide a more accurate analysis of sputum , but it is an invasive maneuver which is used only in patients who can not expectorate .